House Sewer – The pipeline connecting the house and the septic tank.
Septic Tank – Untreated liquid household wastes (sewage) will quickly clog your absorption field if not properly treated. The septic tank provides this needed treatment. When sewage enters the septic tank, the heavy solids settle to the bottom of the tank; the lighter solids, fats and greases partially decompose and rise to the surface and form a layer of scum. The solids that have settled to the bottom are attacked by bacteria and form sludge. Septic tanks do not remove bacteria and, therefore, what is discharged cannot be considered safe.
Distribution Box – Serves to distribute the flow from the septic tank evenly to the absorption field or seepage pits. It is important that each trench or pit receive an equal amount of flow. This prevents overloading of one part of the system.
Absorption Field – A system of narrow trenches partially filled with a bed of washed gravel or crushed stone into which perforated or open joint pipe is placed. The discharge from the septic tank is distributed through these pipes into the trenches and surrounding soil. The subsurface absorption field must be properly sized and constructed to assure satisfactory operation and a long life.
Seepage Pit – A covered pit with a perforated or open-jointed lining through which the discharge from the septic tank infiltrates into the surrounding soil. It is generally installed in sandy or gravel-type soils. Like the absorption field, the seepage pit also must be properly sized and constructed. While seepage pits normally require less land area to install, they should be used only where absorption fields are not suitable and well water supplies are not endangered.